In the beginning God created the Heaven and the Earth
[Genesis 1: 1]
13.798 ± 0.037 billion years
The Age of the Universe
According to theory, the Big Bang occurred approximately 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years ago, which is thus, according to the model, the age of the Universe. In seconds 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years ago, the Universe went from nothing to an extremely hot and dense state rapidly expanding energy cloud. After its initial expansion, the Universe cooled down sufficiently to allow part of the primal energy created and released by the Big Bang to be converted into various subatomic particles, including protons, neutrons, and electrons. Though simple atomic nuclei formed within the first three minutes of the Big Bang giving birth to the Universe, thousands of years three hundred thousands passed before the appearance of hydrogen, helium and lithium, the first electrically neutral atoms. Later, through gravity, giant clouds of these primordial elements coalesced to form the stars and galaxies allowing heavier elements to be synthetized either within stars or during supernovae. Over time, Over a long period of time , the slightly denser regions of the nearly uniformly distributed matter gravitationally attracted nearby matter to grew even denser and form more gas clouds, even more stars and new galaxies, all the astronomical structures that we can observe today.
The Future of the Universe
While the Universe is still expanding today, there are two possible scenarios to be considered for the future. If, at the time of the Big bang, the mass density of the Universe was greater than its critical density, in time, the Universe will reach a maximum size and then begin to collapse in a “Big Crunch” to finally end in a similar state to that in which it started. On the other hand, if at the time of the Big Bang, the mass density of the Universe was equal to or below its critical density, in time, the expansion of the Universe will slow down without ever stopping expanding. With the accelerating consumption of interstellar gas in every galaxy, stars formation will cease and existing stars eventually burn out leaving only white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. Very gradually, collisions between these newly created astronomical structures will result in new astronomic masses accumulating into larger and larger black holes. The average temperature of the Universe will then asymptotically approach absolute zero and result in a “Big Freeze.” Moreover, if at the time of the Big Bang, the protons were unstable, then, it is to be expected that, in some distant future, all baryonic matter will ultimately disappear, leaving only radiation and even more black holes. All black holes evaporating, the entropy of the Universe will then increase to the point where no organized form of energy could be extracted from the Universe, thus resulting in an end scenario of the Universe known as “Heat Death.”
The Fundamental Laws of the Universe
The reality of Big Bang theory depends on two major assumptions: the universality of the laws of physic and the existence and reality of the cosmological principle. The cosmological principle states that, on large scales, the Universe being homogeneous and isotropic, an important feature of the Big Bang “spacetime” is the presence of horizons. Since the Universe has a finite age, and light travels at a finite speed, there may be events in the past whose light has not had time to reach us yet, thus creating a limit or “past horizon” on the most distant objects that can be observed today. Conversely, because the Universe is still expanding, and more distant objects are receding ever more quickly in space, light emitted by us today may never catch up to the very distant celestial objects and bodies. This defines a “future horizon”, which limits the upcoming events that mankind will be able to read or influence. Modern observations of the accelerating expansion of the Universe imply that more and more of the currently visible Universe will pass beyond our “actual event horizon” and out of contact with us. The eventual result and consequences of such observable phenomenon and fundamental laws of the Universe is still unknown and highly unpredictable. Will only gravitationally bound systems, such as galaxies, remain together to be subjected to a “Heat Death” finale as the Universe expands and cools? Or will, according to the “Phantom Energy theories”, galaxies, clusters, stars, planets, atoms, nuclei, and matter itself, ultimately be torn apart in a “Big Rip” resulting from the ever-increasing expansion of the Universe? These are questions that we still cannot answer today and probably will never be able to answer as long as we will not be able to travel and communicate in space faster than light.
And What About God?
Nevertheless and contradicting all religious, philosophical and spiritual actual and immemorial beliefs, since its introduction in 1927, the Big Bang theory has been the prevailing model and explanation for the early development of the Universe, the creation of Heavens and Earth. Today, while most everyone and all religions of the world admit and concur with science, some believing the Big Bang theory of the creation of the Universe still implies a “Creator”, while others argue that Big Bang model and cosmology makes the notion of a “Creator” or the “Divine” absolutely unnecessary and superfluous, the Big Bang theory is still one of the liveliest and the foremost areas in the discourse between science and religion. No Creator, no God! This is now the foremost raging debate between creationists and evolutionists. And what is it to say about all these religions, these philosophical, religious and spiritual beliefs? If indeed there is a creator, if indeed the Universe, as well as mankind and all humanity is the result of the intervention of the divine, who is this omnipotent, omnipresent almighty “God” that created Mankind, the Universe, the Heavens and the Earth? Where does he come from and, more importantly, whose “God” is it that is the “Creator” and whom is he speaking too? For the creationists, whatever their nationality, their religious or spiritual background, for the tenants of the existence of a supreme omnipresent and omnipotent being or deity, their “God” and only their “God” is “The Creator” and, for every one of them, especially the more fanatic, they are all, each one of them, ready to die confessing or to kill whoever do not share their faith and, all of this, only to prove their point. While the reality of the Big Bang is well established, it is still a model of the creation to be likely further examined and refined. As for the reality of the “Divine” and “God,” lets solve that issue once and for all.
To be continued…
Michel Ouellette JMD is a talented keynote and motivational speaker, public affairs & communications Strategist.
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